文章来源: 科学传播局    发布时间: 2019-12-09 08:48:55|二四六944天下彩   【字号:         】


  LONG BEFORE THERE were flowers, the world was green. The first plants appeared some 500 million years ago, early mosses, hornworts and liverworts, low and clinging to the ground. Then, 360 million years ago, ferns rose up, with newly evolved vascular systems that helped them ferry water to their extremities and gain height. They prevailed as the dinosaurs fell, through extinction after extinction, obstinate and mostly unchanging; according to the fossil record, a fern from 180 million years ago was almost identical to its descendants today.

  Ferns were, therefore, a part of human existence from our very start, and yet in the West, it wasn’t until the Victorians that we went mad for these prehistoric relics. Pteridomania, the official name of the fever, was fueled in part by the 1829 invention of the Wardian case, a glazed glass box built to transport and protect sensitive plants, and by the extension of roads and railways to previously less accessible and particularly damp corners of Britain, where ferns thrived. The craze was democratic, cutting across class lines: Farmers foraged for specimens while aristocrats imported rarities hunted in far-flung lands, from Borneo to Brazil.

  You might say that, once awakened, our craze for them never died. In 1960s America, the plants became the defining decoration of the so-called fern bars, which took inspiration from idealized grandmotherly living rooms (along with banks of potted ferns, they often featured homey wooden tables with Tiffany-style lamps), creating a space where single women would feel safe sipping sugary cocktails — an upper-crust version of tiki bars, minus the exuberance. By the 1980s, ferns (or, more often, their plastic likeness) drooped from macramé hangers in homes across the country, a tropical trope in a decade that celebrated excess.

  OURS, HOWEVER, IS a more anxious era. And increasingly florists are returning to ferns, this time not as status symbols or coddled exotics but as envoys from deep time that have steadfastly weathered it all, reminding us that this, too, shall pass. “They are by nature quite a contradiction,” said Lucy Hunter of the Flower Hunter, a floral and landscape designer based in North Wales in the United Kingdom. “Tough yet delicate.”

  For arrangements, Hunter favors the Japanese painted fern, with its silver-tinged filigree and wine-dark midribs like branching veins; the warm, coppery fronds of the autumn fern; and the maidenhair fern, notoriously fussy and more air than plant, its wispy leaflets floating like fine thread. In gardens, she’s drawn to long-fringed plumes of the ostrich fern, which recall their namesake bird’s feathers, and the “proportional perfection” of fronds as they unfurl in spring, and again as they achieve their most ornate state in winter, just before collapsing. “How fleeting yet ancient they are,” she said. “Humbling, really.”

  With their curlicues and reiterations, ferns defy standard geometry and come closer to sculpture than any other plant. In Robert Mapplethorpe’s “Fiddle Ferns” (1983), the taut spirals of young fern shoots read as the embodiment of coiled, pent-up energy. To the floral designer Doan Ly of A.P. Bio in New York, the appeal is austere yet sensuous, from the bird’s-nest fern with its waxy ruffles to the uncanny symmetry of the sword fern, each little pinna like a drawn blade.

  Even when a fern is relegated to an ostensible supporting role, its silhouette dominates: For Cara Fitch of Trille Floral in Sydney, Australia, the frond’s logarithmic contours often define the borders of the entire arrangement. So singular are their patterns, they’re immediately recognizable even when transformed into art objects, as with the paper ferns created by Stephanie Redlinger of the Florasmith in San Francisco, somehow skeletal and voluptuous at once, or the native fern abstracted into totemic repetition in a textile design by Sarah Nicholas Williams of Radish Moon.

  At times, ferns are simply visually implausible — beautifully silly. Ly fantasizes about outfitting a bridal party with umbrella ferns, each member carrying one like a lacy parasol. Vic Brotherson of Scarlet & Violet in London juxtaposes disheveled, swollen-headed roses with pristine arcs of fronds, like a cocked eyebrow. For the New York florist Emily Thompson, a fiddlehead encountered in the wild on a stalk five feet tall evokes a monocle. Sometimes she’ll add a giant Australian fern to a bouquet “to give it a ‘Jack and the Beanstalk’ feel,” or match smaller ferns with equally diminutive flowers, as they might grow together in a forest, taking everything down to fairy scale.

  To chefs, ferns present more of a challenge, as only a few are edible and must be treated carefully. (In certain species, small concentrations of ptaquiloside, a carcinogen, have been detected; fortunately, it’s water-soluble and, according to experts, mostly disappears after a good blanch.) Sheldon Simeon of Lineage and Tin Roof on Maui takes foraged hapu‘u, a hairy Hawaiian tree fern that towers at seven feet tall, and soaks it in water for a day, then boils, scrapes and boils it again before turning it into an earthy stew. “It’s harder to get — you need a spot where it constantly rains,” he said. More common are the wild patches of pohole that local families know and tend, trimming the plants in the weeks before a luau to coax out fresh shoots. These he might braise Chinese-style in the runoff of fatty pork or gloss with sesame oil and mix with dried ‘opae (freshwater baby shrimp), a nod to the connection between the ferns and the rivers that replenish them.

  Ferns, which when simmered can approach mulch in texture, may never be the centerpiece of a menu. But as in a bouquet, they can be the small, primordial touch that recalibrates the whole. In preparation for his forthcoming fermentation-focused restaurant, Deuki Hong of Sunday Bird and Sunday at the Museum in San Francisco has experimented with bracken, which he grew up eating as the Korean condiment and banchan (side dish) gosari namul. He notes that it retains its grassy flavor and crunch even after pickled; endurance is part of its character. Indeed, bracken was part of the earliest human meal on scientific record, found among the remains of ibex and einkorn wheat in the perfectly preserved stomach of a 5,300-year-old Copper Age skeleton, disinterred from under the ice in the Ötztal Alps in 1991.

  To gaze upon a fern is to realize yourself in the presence of “immense spans of time,” as the neurologist (and amateur pteridologist, or scholar of ferns) Oliver Sacks wrote in “Oaxaca Journal” (2002), his chronicle of searching for ferns in Mexico. Flowers may have colors, fragrance and brazen sensuality on their side; other ingredients may take the place of honor on the table. But ferns are the elders of our world, primordial holdouts against whose history ours is no more than the curl at the tip of a frond.



  二四六944天下彩“【极】【致】【的】【体】【魄】,【才】【能】【支】【撑】【施】【展】【裂】【双】【身】,【而】【不】【是】【像】【你】【之】【前】【那】【样】,【只】【能】【通】【过】【断】【臂】【为】【引】,【不】【过】【话】【说】【你】【失】【了】【一】【臂】,【虽】【然】【表】【面】【上】【复】【原】【了】,【但】【是】【本】【源】【力】【量】【损】【失】【了】【许】【多】,【过】【后】【需】【要】【补】【充】【回】【来】……” 【林】【天】【立】【的】【声】【音】【渐】【渐】【消】【失】【在】【风】【雪】【之】【中】。 “【少】【年】,【我】【留】【在】【你】【体】【内】【的】【那】【丝】【力】【量】【会】【慢】【慢】【消】【散】,【你】【得】【依】【靠】【自】【己】【的】【力】【量】【继】【续】【前】【行】,【这】【场】【跋】【涉】

【碧】【落】【道】,“【我】【是】【主】,【她】【是】【仆】,【我】【直】【接】【去】【问】,【她】【不】【敢】【说】【也】【是】【正】【常】【的】,【我】【打】【算】【让】【小】【玉】【试】【试】,【她】【们】【都】【是】【下】【人】,【也】【许】【就】【能】【跟】【小】【玉】【说】【呢】。” “【那】【就】【试】【试】【吧】。”【小】【夭】【有】【气】【无】【力】【地】【说】,【她】【还】【是】【觉】【得】【这】【个】【方】【法】【太】【浪】【费】【时】【间】【了】。 【晚】【上】,【趁】【王】【妈】【回】【偏】【房】【休】【息】【时】,【碧】【落】【把】【小】【玉】【叫】【进】【来】。 “【小】【玉】,【我】【听】【了】【你】【的】【建】【议】,【给】【自】【己】【找】【了】【点】【药】【吃】


  “【老】【延】,【我】【说】【这】【萧】【钦】【耀】【也】【太】【恶】【心】【人】【了】【吧】,【明】【明】【已】【经】【是】【必】【胜】【的】【局】,【居】【然】【还】【做】【的】【这】【么】【狠】。”【许】【大】【海】【开】【口】【吐】【槽】【道】。 “【比】【赛】【场】【上】,【这】【并】【没】【有】【什】【么】,【每】【个】【人】【都】【是】【胜】【利】【的】【方】【法】,【只】【是】【他】【的】【更】【极】【端】【而】【已】。”【周】【延】【摊】【了】【摊】【手】【道】。 【顺】【便】【拔】【了】【一】【口】【外】【卖】,【之】【前】【一】【直】【盯】【着】【比】【赛】,【外】【卖】【到】【了】【也】【没】【来】【得】【及】【去】【吃】。 “【唉】,【这】【一】【场】【之】【后】,【苍】【穹】二四六944天下彩【在】【秦】【人】【和】【玛】【琼】【琳】“【爆】【料】”【之】【后】【又】【过】【了】【一】【段】【时】【间】,【时】【间】【已】【经】【接】【近】【了】【七】【月】。 【高】【中】【的】【假】【期】【也】【即】【将】【来】【临】。 【不】【过】【这】【些】【和】【秦】【人】【已】【经】【没】【什】【么】【关】【系】【了】,“**”【这】【个】【马】【甲】【已】【经】【不】【是】【他】【寄】【宿】【的】【驱】【壳】,【已】【经】【变】【成】【了】【近】【似】【磷】【子】【一】【般】【的】【工】【具】【人】【了】。 【他】【现】【在】【这】【个】“【貘】【良】【了】”,【这】【个】【火】【雾】【战】【士】【的】【身】【份】,【不】【需】【要】【去】【上】【什】【么】【课】。 【他】【一】【直】【在】【等】

  【两】【女】【对】【视】【许】【久】,【都】【不】【说】【话】。 【直】【到】【很】【晚】【的】【时】【候】,【喧】【闹】【声】【才】【不】【断】【响】【起】。 【直】【到】【过】【了】【一】【会】,【终】**【次】【听】【到】【王】【剑】【的】【声】【音】,【不】【过】【却】【是】【断】【断】【续】【续】。 【不】【过】,【吕】【青】【衣】【却】【忽】【然】【调】【笑】【道】:“【你】【这】【一】【招】,【用】【来】【监】【视】【男】【人】【倒】【真】【是】【不】【错】【呢】。” 【龙】【亦】【菲】【说】【道】:“【这】【是】【用】【于】【军】【事】【和】【警】【务】【的】。” 【不】【得】【不】【说】,【吕】【青】【衣】【说】【的】【不】【错】。 【对】【于】【太】

  “【凌】【儿】,【我】【答】【应】【你】,【要】【给】【你】【幸】【福】【安】【定】【的】【生】【活】,【所】【以】,【若】【是】【你】【不】【愿】【意】,【那】【我】【就】【不】【会】【起】【兵】。”【叶】【世】【楷】【坚】【定】【说】【道】。 “【夫】【君】,【倘】【使】【没】【有】【我】,【你】【还】【会】【起】【兵】【吗】。”【何】【凌】【寒】【又】【问】【道】。 “【这】……”【叶】【世】【楷】【迟】【迟】【没】【有】【回】【答】,【倘】【若】【他】【从】【未】【遇】【见】【过】【何】【凌】【寒】,【那】【么】【现】【在】【自】【然】【不】【会】【忌】【惮】,【恐】【怕】【十】【有】**【会】【起】【兵】。 “【夫】【君】,【若】【是】【没】【有】【我】,【你】






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